# Sudoku as a Genealogical Tool

Okay, maybe I’m a bit off the wall with this one, but I truly believe that completing Sudoku puzzles is a good way to develop your genealogical skills. To be more precise, this activity is a great way to increase your powers of deduction, logic, and inference. I’ll explain how in this post.

What is a Sudoku Puzzle?

A Sudoku (pronounced “soo-doe-koo”), if you’re unfamiliar with it, is a number puzzle. Like most things, it has an interesting history all on its own. I won’t go into that here, but it actually didn’t originate in Japan as the name suggests. (Your assignment is to go research the history of Sudoku. There will be a test.)*

The puzzle is a grid made up of a total of 81 squares divided into smaller grids in nine smaller squares of nine numbers each (i.e. the numbers 1 through 9). The numbers are in a 3 by 3 arrangement in the smaller squares. To start, some of the 81 numbers in the larger puzzle grid are already filled in. Your task is to fill in the remaining numbers. The catch is that no number can be used twice in any of the smaller squares, vertical columns or horizontal rows. So how do you solve it with so little information?

First, you have to take a step back and ask yourself what the puzzle is already telling you. Even though it looks like there is no useful information at all (i.e. just a bunch of random numbers plugged in here and there), in fact there are logical inferences you can make from the numbers you have. Take a look at the example here:

Now, this is a major cheat since you would not very likely start off in a Sudoku puzzle with two full lines and one sub-grid filled in. However, I wanted to simplify it a bit for the purposes of showing you how the logical part works. What do you see?

The fact that some of the numbers are repeated more than others might be one thing you notice. The 3, 6, 7, and 9 appear more than the five other numbers. The 6 and 7 appear most often. Therefore, we have more information about the placements of the 6 and 7 than we do about any of the other numbers. This is a good place to start, then.

What do we do with that? If you look at the possible locations of the next number 6, you’ll see there are just too many possibilities to say for certain where that next 6 will go. There are from two to four possible locations for any of the squares that do not yet contain a 6.

Moving on, what about the 7? In the three centre sub-grids, from the top sub-grid to the bottom sub-grid, there are three, five, and five possibilities respectively. That’s not enough information. In the left-centre sub-grid, there are two possibilities for placement. Again, this is not enough information to tell us where to put the 7.

But look at the bottom right-hand grid. There is only one possible square in which to place a number 7: the bottom line, middle square. I hope you see this. You have just used a logical inference.

Why is This Relevant?

In order to complete a Sudoku successfully you need to use logic, inference, and deduction. It is just exactly this kind of careful examination of the clues you have that you’ll use in sorting out the possibilities for relationships in family trees and pedigrees. In order to research your family history you often need to use…logic, inference, and deduction.

Don’t be fooled. A Sudoku is not about the numbers or about mathematics (although there is mathematical theory that applies to it). You don’t have to be a whiz at arithmetic to solve one. I have heard many people say, “Oh, I don’t do Sudokus. I’m no good at math.” You don’t have to be! Solving the puzzle is all about you reasoning effectively.

If you’re already a whiz at Sudokus, but you haven’t started researching your family history, I ask you: “Why not?” You’ll likely be very good at it. The skills you honed while solving Sudokus are exactly the same kinds of skills, among many others, that university history professors spend 3 or 4 years trying to drill into their students’ heads. In other words, these skills are excellent building blocks for learning how to conduct historical and genealogical research.

If you’ve never done a Sudoku puzzle and you’re interested in family history research, start doing a daily Sudoku. It won’t get you any closer to learning your great-great-grandfather’s name, but you will have a good grounding on how to figure out who he is from a dozen others of the same name living in the same county once you do start researching because now you will have the powers of logic, inference, and deduction you’ll need to do that. The rest is finding the resources to apply your new skills to in order to create your family tree. (But that’s another blog post for another day.)

I’m Convinced, Where do I Find One?

Print

Most daily newspapers run a daily Sudoku. In the Eastern Ontario area where I live, we have a weekly free newspaper that always features a Sudoku. You can also buy whole books of Sudoku puzzles at bookstores like Chapters-Indigo or at department stores or grocery stores with magazine sections. So they’re not hard to find.

Online

The CBC website has a daily Sudoku on their website in their Games pages (on the main page, click on “More” then look for the “Games” link under the “Sections” heading; scroll down to find the “Sudoku Daily” link under the “Diversions” heading) . The Open Directory Project has dozens of links to daily Sudoku puzzles at http://www.dmoz.org/Games/Puzzles/Brain_Teasers/Sudoku/ .

[Addendum: Kelly Leary, of K.B. Genealogy & Research in Fort Pierce, Florida, informs me that there is a Sudoku app for the iPad, iPhone, and iPod Touch. It’s free!]

So do go and get a Sudoku and start working on it! And let us know how it turns out by leaving a comment!

Contact Pearce Heritage Research at www.pearceheritageresearch.ca if you need help getting started on your family history research. Tell us that you read our Sudoku blog entry and we’ll give you a half-hour free genealogy consultation (offer good until December 31, 2012). Fill in the message area on our Contact Us page and tell us you read this blog post.

*Just kidding about the test. And the assignment.

# Miss Anne Powell Travels to Detroit, Pt. III

Miss Anne Powell Travels to Detroit, the final installment

Miss Anne Powell and her party did eventually make it to Detroit on June 9, 39 days after leaving Montreal. Along the way, she met Chief Joseph Brant, and visited Niagara Falls. Her letters describe in some detail her impressions of the Niagara Gorge and the Falls, a council that she witnessed of 200 First Nations chiefs near Fort Erie and some of the event’s participants. From Fort Erie it was a five-day journey from Fort Erie to the Detroit River at the head of Lake Erie, some thirty kilometres below Detroit.  Interestingly, Miss Anne notes that since the British had ceded Fort Detroit to the Americans, a new town must be built across the river from it. This town, named Sandwich, was not actually established until 1796, around the time that the Americans took up residence at Fort Detroit. Later, the town of Sandwich was renamed Windsor. Fort Detroit eventually disappeared beneath the streets of the expanding city of Detroit and has been lost to history.

And so we leave Miss Anne Powell enjoying the social life and the parties and the scenery on the Detroit River, because that’s where her letters leave off. Later, she returned to Montreal and married Isaac Winslow Clarke. Clarke was a Loyalist who had before the American Revolution lived in Boston. In fact, he was one of the consignees for the British East India Company’s shipment of tea that was thrown overboard during the famous 1773 “Boston Tea Party” event, as noted by Old Province Tales author William Renwick Riddell, where we find Miss Anne Powell’s story. Clarke later served in the British army during the War of 1812. He died at sea on his way to England in 1824, in his late 70s. Sadly, Miss Anne Powell died in 1792, barely 30 years old.

One caution here: remember that a resource like Old Province Tales is a secondary source. While it may be a good place to start (not to mention a lot of fun to read), if you’re planning to apply this type of source to your research be sure to cite is as such and don’t take anything the author says for granted. Even though an author may state that someone was born or died at a certain date, for example, this may be incorrect. Always verify these types of claims through primary resources if possible.

Archive.org

As I’ve noted previously, sources other than the traditional genealogical sources like censuses, cemetery records, land petitions and deeds, and so on can often reveal interesting tidbits of information that we might otherwise never discover. However, we sometimes have to go to more offbeat sources online to find records like these. One source I highly recommend you make use of is Archive.org.

Archive.org is a non-profit Internet library founded in 1996 for the purposes of, as the site’s “About” section notes, “offering permanent access for researchers, historians, scholars, people with disabilities, and the general public to historical collections that exist in digital format”. They hold a vast amount of digital resources, including old manuscripts. I have found and used city directories (another useful resource for locating family members), commercial directories, digitized Canada  and U.S. census documents, books, pictures, even old movies. It is an incredible resource that you should check out. You can download many of these materials in PDF, epub, and Kindle formats. Some are only available through Archive.org’s collaborator, Google Books (another repository of old manuscripts).

Tips for Using Archive.org

Although they have a lot of Canadian documents, these are not always found where you might expect them. For example, under the drop-down menu “Texts” you will see headings like “American Libraries”, “Canadian Libraries”, “University Libraries”, “Project Gutenberg”, etc. Even though you might be looking for Canadian documents, many of these have been contributed by U.S. universities and libraries from their own holdings and will be found under the heading of U.S. contributors. I recommend that when searching for Canadian textual materials you search using the “Texts” heading, which will return results for texts from all sources.

Another link to pay attention to on the landing page is the “Book contributor” link. These are the folks who provided the digitized materials to Archive.org. Often they have whole catalogues on the site that you can browse through to find additional materials.

The Wayback Machine

(picture source: Wikipedia)

Finally, the site has a feature called “The Wayback Machine”. If you’re not old enough to remember it, the “Wayback Machine” is a reference to the cartoon “Peabody’s Improbable History” from the Rocky and Bullwinkle cartoons of the 1960s. Archive’s WM, though, is a function that allows you to search for websites from the past. that no longer exist If you find yourself clicking on a dead link on a website, and you really want the information that just might be on that dead website, try copying and pasting the link into the Wayback Machine and click the “Take Me Back” button. Chances are good that the site is archived and you might still find the information you were looking for.

All in all Archive.org is a fantastic website. I have spent hours browsing through the resources there. And I always find something new and unexpected.

I have listed below some of the resources I used in researching and writing this little series. As always, please feel free to comment or ask a question. You can also contact me via my website at www.pearceheritageresearch.ca. I am always happy to answer questions about Canadian heritage.

Sources:

Biographi.ca, Entries for William Dummer Powell and Richard Duncan, www.biographi.ca

Brymner, Douglas, archivist, Report on Canadian Archives,  1889, Brown Chamberlain, Ottawa,  Collections Canada

Carp, Benjamin L., Terms of Estrangement: Who Were the Sons of Liberty?, Colonial Williamsburg Journal, Winter, 2012, http://www.history.org/foundation/journal/winter12/liberty.cfm

Riddell, William Renwick, Old Province Tales, 1920, Glasgow Brooke and Company, Toronto

# Hello Cousin!

I know I’m diverging from finishing the Miss Anne Powell train of stories, but I thought I’d throw this post out there. A part of my focus in writing this blog is to give new family history researchers some helpful tips and interesting information. This post fits that focus. I was watching some YouTube videos from Vsauce the other day and one of the videos reminded me of the issue I’m writing about here. If you are new to genealogy, you may not have come across the concept of “pedigree collapse”. The following is an excerpt from my forthcoming book, Genealogy Basics for Canadian Family History Researchers. I’ve added some links so that you can go read more about the concept.

Let’s Do Some Math

Wouldn’t it be wonderful to be able to trace your family back 500 years? 1,000? Would it even be possible to trace all of your unique ancestors on both sides of your family back so far? For most of us, the answer is “probably not”, and not only because there are no historical documents to trace your lineage that far back.

Your family tree is, at its simplest, two separate pedigrees, one for your father and one for your mother. If we consider a generation to be about 25 years, we would be thinking about 20 generations for 500 years of history and around 40 generations for 1,000 years of history. Now consider this: for every generation we go backward the number of our ancestors doubles. You’re number one, you have two parents, four grandparents, eight great-grandparents, sixteen great-great-grandparents, and so on. By the time you go back 500 years, you would be looking for more than half a million people. If you could go back another 500 years to 1,000 years ago, you would be looking for 550 billion people (and by the way, I did the math using a spreadsheet, so please feel free to correct me if you think my math is wrong). Now stop and think about that. There are 7 billion people in the entire world today; the highest number in history. How could you have 550 billion unique ancestors? The short answer is: you can’t.

Pedigree Collapse

In genealogy there is a concept called “pedigree collapse”. This means that, at some point in the past, both your father’s line and your mother’s line will have a single common ancestor and the unique pedigree for each collapses. In other words, both of your parents are descended from the same person at some point.

According to Rhode, et al., in a letter published in the journal Nature, the most recent common genealogical ancestor of everyone living today came from Taiwan about 2,300 years ago. This means that if we could trace our family history back 2,300 years genealogically, each of us could name this person as an ancestor. According to another source, if you go back 20 generations, one-third of your ancestors will be duplicates. So if you could go back 500 years (20 generations), approximately 175,000 of your potential half million ancestors would be common to both your family lines. In fact, anyone in your country in the same ethnic group likely will be your relative. If you’re European in descent, the point where the number of possible ancestors is the same as the estimated population (the entire population, not just the adult population) occurs sometime during the mid-fourteenth century. So, as you can see, it is impossible in this respect to trace your family tree as two separate pedigrees back 1,000 years. Somewhere along the line they are going to converge into a common ancestor.

I have one client whose family I traced back to 1800. This client’s father’s direct ancestor in the surname line had come to Canada from the United States around that time. I wasn’t researching the client’s mother’s line, because the research objective was to prove a bit of family lore about a First Nations ancestor in the father’s line. Surprisingly, when I researched the client’s paternal grandmother and grandfather’s lines to the early 19th century, I discovered that they converged at the same individual, the one who arrived in Canada from the U.S. in 1800. This is an example of pedigree collapse.

Of course, this is only one small part of all this client’s ancestry. There were certainly other immediate ancestors who were in no way so obviously related to that first ancestor in 1800. Early 19th century Upper Canada had a population of, according to the Library and Archives Canada website, 70,718, and so had an equally-limited population available for marriages. This type of limited pedigree collapse is a fairly likely occurrence for most people who trace their ancestry through both lines to early Upper Canada or the same area of another part of early Canada. Further, such convergence demonstrates why the number of your ancestors can never be more than the population of a given ethnic group, country or continent at any given point in history. Thank goodness for immigration.

Til next time, take care Cousin.

# Miss Anne Powell Travels to Detroit, Pt. II

Pearce Heritage Research Associates

I hope that you have read the Captain Richard Duncan biography at the Biographi.ca website . By now you might be asking, “why do I have to do homework to read this blog?”. Well, you don’t really. I just wanted to give you two entirely different perspectives on the same historical person, Captain Richard Duncan, and if you read his “official” story, you’ll better understand those two perspectives.

Meet Mary Wright Duncan

On the way to Detroit, Miss Anne Powell stayed overnight at the home of Captain Richard Duncan. There, she met both the Captain and his wife. She doesn’t mention the wife by name, but we know that she was Mary Wright. She married Richard Duncan in October of 1784.

In her letters, Miss Anne writes about her 1789 meeting with Mary:

We pass’d one night at the house of a Capt’ Duncan, whose Wife I had often heard mention’d by my sister and whose story I commiserated before I saw her person. She is one of the loveliest young women I ever saw, both in person and manners, is now only nineteen and has been 5 years married.

Interestingly, we discover from Miss Anne’s writing that Mary is nineteen years old. She has also been “5 years married”. That means that Mary was wed at the very tender age of fourteen. This fact is not mentioned in the biograhpi.ca profile of Captain Duncan. As a family historian, if you were investigating this family’s story, you might have missed this fact if you had not dug a little deeper into the story. A marriage record might have revealed this, but perhaps not. In 1784, there were no official marriage civil registers. These were not begun until 1869 in Ontario, and considerably later in Quebec. Church records might be the only available source for this type of information. However, there was no standard format for recording such unions and the information contained in them varies. If I were researching the Duncan family, I would most certainly want to see any available marriage record after having read Miss Ann Powell’s letters.

I haven’t seen the marriage record for Mary Wright and Captain Duncan to know what information is contained in it, or indeed if it even exists. However, my point is not to prove Mary Wright’s age. My point is only that sometimes an unusual, “unofficial” source can yield some very interesting information.

I love the juicy-gossip quality of Miss Anne’s writing. My general perception of her is that she was a likeable, honest, and caring individual. If you read her letters, I’m sure you will agree. So when she writes about Captain Duncan himself, I’m inclined to believe what she writes about him.

Meet Richard Duncan

In the official biography, we learn that Duncan’s father, John, was an “Indian trader” operating out of Schenectady, New York. Further, “By the time of the American revolution the Duncans had acquired extensive landholdings but had also accumulated a joint debt of £3,000”. Generally, Duncan was a good soldier, rising from the rank of ensign, and having participated in the Battle of Saratoga. You can read about the infantry company he commanded during the war, some of his exploits, and the company’s modern re-enactors at http://royalyorkers.ca/duncans.php. After the Revolution, he was granted lands in Mariatown (near Morrisburg, Ontario), and continued to add to this allotment by purchasing more acreage around him.

Miss Anne confirms many of the facts presented in the official biography. But she adds an extra dimension. She tells us about the character of the man, Richard Duncan, rather than the military figure, something not in evidence in the more staid recounting of his life on biographi.ca. Please don’t get the impression that I’m picking on biographi.ca; it’s a great resource for this type of background information. Nor am I necessarily trying to intentionally impugn the reputation of an obviously very capable Loyalist soldier. My intent is only to show how resources like the letters of Miss Anne Powell can add that extra, human dimension to our research subjects.

Anne Powell doesn’t like Captain Duncan. She says as much, even as she expresses extreme sympathy for the position of her young hostess.

She describes Captain Duncan as: “a Man who is old, disagreeable and vicious, but he was suppos’d to be rich and her friends absolutely forced [Mary] to marry him.” She clearly despises his treatment of his young wife: “I never heard of such a series of cruelty being practiced on any poor creature in my life both before and after her marriage.” And she loathes Captain Duncan himself: “The disgust I felt towards him is now settled into a fixed aversion which can never change for it is founded on principle.

Earlier, I used the quote from biographi.ca to show that Captain Duncan was a man deeply indebted to his creditors (“a joint debt of £3,000”). Miss Anne confirms this as she tells us, “After the sacrifice was made [i.e., after Mary Wright wed Duncan], her friends had the mortification of finding themselves deceived in his circumstances ; so far from being rich he was deeply in debt, and had nothing to live upon but his half-pay and his new lands which were then in a state of Nature.” By the way, I used a calculator on the realworth.com website to calculate that the Duncans’ debt of £3,000 would be equivalent to £4,000,000 (\$6 million CDN) today, so his indebtedness was not a small thing.

This dishonesty in his representation of himself to Mary, and perhaps to her family and friends, might be why Miss Anne so harshly decries Mary’s condition, living in the wilderness in such a poor state: “There, however he brought her, and there she lived in a hut without society, and almost without the necessaries of life, ’till he built a house, which he has done upon so large a scale that it will never be finished.” Her description of Mrs. Duncan’s married life is in stark contrast to the life of affluence with Captain Duncan that evidently Mary and everyone else concerned expected.

A Good Flow of Spirits

Miss Anne concludes her description of the experience by expressing her hopes for Mary Wright Duncan: “I felt myself very much interested for this sweet young woman and should have great pleasure in hearing her Tyrant was dead, the only means by which she can be released.” This might not be a charitable way to express herself, but I think it clearly underscores the depth of feeling Captain Duncan evoked in Miss Anne.

Reading her letters, I grew to quite like Miss Anne Powell. She was not one to suffer injustice lightly. Certainly, she expresses quite clearly that she would never allow herself to be put into circumstances similar to her friend, Mary. She is, we find, particularly strong-willed for a woman of her time. She would rather die than to live the way Mary was living:

I, at that moment thought with pleasure of a circumstance that has often mortified me, the slightness of my own constitution which will never leave me long to struggle under any great misfortune ; a good flow of spirits buoys me up above the common vexations of life; few people, I believe, bear them with more temper, but an evil too great for the strength of my mind would soon send me to the grave.

That’s it for this week’s installment. Stop by again for another new adventure in history. Next time, I’ll tell you how I found this amazing story and what other free resources are available at the same website. As always, please feel free to comment on anything you read here on this blog.

End of Pt. II